Influence of heredity and environment on growth and development (CTET)
Concept of Heredity
The process of genetic properties being transmitted from one generation to another is called heredity. The study of methods and causes of generation-to-generation transmission of genetic traits is called genetics. Heredity is considered a stable social structure.
A person’s inheritance includes all the bodily structures, physical characteristics, actions or abilities that he inherits from his parents, other ancestors or species. The most important result of the heredity reproduction process is the design similar to the progeny’s organisms. Heredity rules determine the degree to which different traits are inherited with complete reliability.
Most of the parental traits are common in children. Those are called hereditary traits. Such traits are transmitted from generation to generation.
Effects of Heredity
Effect on physical symptoms
● The genetic properties of a child have an important role in determining the appearance, shape, physical formation, height, etc. of a child. The fertilized zygotes in the mother’s womb combine to form various combinations of chromosomes. In this way, different genes from each child of the same parent have more similarities in the child than others with their own or blood relatives. It is only natural for a normal and healthy child to develop more than the children who are thin, weak, sick and suffering from any kind of physical obstruction since birth. Physical deficiencies have adverse effects not only on the growth and development of health as well.
Effect on intelligence
Wisdom is defined as learning ability, adjustability, decision making ability, etc. The child whose speed of learning is high, his mental development will also be fast. How the child adjusts himself in his family, society and school depends on his intelligence. Emotional ability develops in the child in accordance with mental capacity. The type of emotions that will develop in the child has the ability to fully influence his social, mental, moral, physical and language development. Emotionally unbalanced children are unable to pay attention in studies or in any other serious work, consequently their mental development is also affected.
The superiority of intelligence is also due to the species.
Meaning of environment
• Environment includes the living and nonliving things that an organism interact with or has an effect on it. Trees, plants and animals etc. come under the environment. In this way, the atmosphere or environment means the one who surrounds it. Animals or human beings are surrounded by water, air, vegetation, mountains, plateaus, rivers, things, etc., all of them together create the environment. It is also known as Atmosphere.
Environment has a significant impact on the development of human life. As much as heredity contributes to human development, so does the environment.
The atmosphere brings all the elements that have influenced a person from the time he started his life. From pregnancy to life, many types of events affect a person’s personality and his development.
After birth, a variety of environmental factors are active to influence a child’s development. In this, the environment of the child’s home, his family members and school and neighborhood relations, etc. play a major role.
•The main factors of environment are – physical factors, social factors, economic factors and cultural factors.
Under this comes natural and geographical conditions. Climate influences man’s development. Where there is more winter or where there is more heat, there is no development of human beings. The people of cold regions are beautiful, fair, healthy and intelligent. Patience is also high in them. While the people of the hot state are black, irritable and aggressive in nature.
Money provides many types of life facilities to a person. Poor person develops inferiority complex due to lack of facilities, which hinders the path of development. The economic environment also affects the intellectual capacity of man. It also has an impact on social development.
Religion and culture highly influence the development of man. The way of eating, the way of living, the mode of worship, the way of celebrating, the way of culture, etc. are our culture. Cultures that contain a scientific perspective develop properly, but the development of society is not possible where superstition and conservatism is involved.
Heredity and environment have an impact on all types of development, physical, mental, emotional, social. This is why the education of the child is also affected by it. Therefore, this type of information about the child helps the teacher in solving his / her problems. Only after understanding the child can he be given directions. Not all children studying in a class have the same physical, mental health. Physical development is associated with mental development and whose mental development is good, his education is also good.
Revision of most important MCQ’s
1. Which of the following is true about the role of heredity and environment in the development of a child? [CTET 2013]
(1) 50-50% of the development of a child, both heredity and environment
(2) The relative contribution of the adult and the parent is not additive.
(3) Heredity and environment do not operate together.
(4) Instinct is related to environment whereas heredity is necessary for real development.
2. _____Carries out an important role in personality development. [CTET 2012]
(3) Mixture of Heredity and environment
(4) Number of examinations
3. Which of the following is mainly a heredity related factor? [CTET 2012]
(1) eye color
(2) Participation in social activities
(3) aptitude towards a group of equivalent persons
(4) Thinking pattern
4. All of the following environmental factors shape growth, except for ____. [CTET 2012]
(1) nutritional quality
(3) Quality of education
(4) Body formation
5. Heredity is considered to be a ___ social structure.[CTET 2011]
(1)Secondary (2) dynamic (3) stable (4) primary
6. Human personality is the result:[CTET 2012]
(1) Only of heredity
(2) of upbringing and education
(3) Interaction of heredity and environment
(4) Only of the environment
7. Which of the following statements do you think is appropriate in the context of ‘nature-nurturing’ debate?[CTET 2015]
(1) A child is like a blank slate whose character can be molded into any shape by the surroundings.
(2) Children are genetically inclined to the side they should be, no matter what kind of environment they are growing in.
(3) Ambient effects are of little importance in determining a child’s behavior; It is primarily determined genetically
(4) Inheritance and environment are inextricably intertwined with each other and Both affect development.
8. Through placing learners in the least restrictive school environment, the school [CTET 2014]
(1) Equal educational opportunities for girls and disadvantaged sections.
(2) normalizes the lives of the children of the disadvantaged class which is increasing the school’s relationship with the communities and parents of these children.
(3) Participates children from disadvantaged class in activities like science fair and quiz.
(4) Sensitizes other children not to suppress Unprofitable children and do not let them down.
9. Which of the following approaches suggests a child interacting with people and social institutions around him in order to deal with children with disturbing behavioral disorders? [CTET 2014]
10. With reference to the role of heredity and environment in human development, which of the following statements is appropriate? [CTET 2014]
(1) Relative effects of heredity and environment are variable in different areas of development.
(2) The policy of compensatory discrimination of the Government of India is based on the role of ‘nature’ in human development.
(3) The role of the environment remains almost constant while the effect of heredity may change.
(4) The principles of ‘behaviorism’ are often based on the role of ‘nature’ in human development.
1. (2) 2. (3) 3. (1) 4. (4) 5. (3) 6. (3)
7. (4) 8. (4) 9. (2) 10. (1)