Child Development and its Relationship with Learning
CTET Paper II
Human beings are rational beings. It has the power to reason which aids its quick learning. Learning is of special importance in a person’s behavior. Learning is the basis of success in life. It has an important place in the field of education. It is only through learning that human beings can change their instincts so much that it does not make them difficult to identify. We want to teach children and learning is real education.
Child development and learning are interrelated. Growth stops once in a while, but development and learning is a continuous process. Let’s Know about learning:-
Meaning of Learning
Learning is a process that continues throughout life And by which we acquire some knowledge or by which our behavior changes. A person starts learning only after birth. Learning is known as change, improvement, development, progress and adjustment. It is not only limited to school education, cycling, reading or typing Rather it is a huge word that has a deep impact on the person.
The learning helps in the all round development of personality. It helps in achieving the goals of life. After learning, a person is able to understand himself and the world. Meaningful learning is a productive process of presenting concrete things and mental resources and bringing them changes, rather than gathering information and rote it.
- According to Gates:- “learning is modification of behaviour through experience”.
- According to Skinner:- “learning includes both acquisition and retention”.
- According to woodworth:- “Any addition to our existing experience is a kind of learning”.
•All children are motivated to learn by nature and have the ability to learn.
• The learning process continues both within and outside the school
• Learning can occur without anyone’s mediation or even without it. Learning directly from social context and communication, especially with more competent people, gives students the opportunity to work at their own higher cognitive levels.
• There should be a proper pace of learning so that the student does not forget the rote concepts and learns after the exam but can understand and assimilate it. Also, there should be variety and challenges in learning so that it will keep the children interesting and keep them busy. Feeling bored is a sign that the child is now mechanically repeating that task and that cognitive value is gone.
Various stages of child development and its relationship with learning
Learning during Infancy
The system from birth to 6 years is called infancy In this, the physical and mental development of children is rapid from birth to 3 years. In this period, socialization of children also starts. In childhood, a strong tendency to follow and repeat is found in children. From the point of view of psychologists, this period is the best stage of language learning. This period is most important from the point of view of education.
Learning during childhood
The condition from 6 years to 12 years is called childhood. In the first phase of childhood, in 6 to 9 years increase both the length and weight of children. During this period, children develop thinking and reasoning powers. From this year onwards, children start taking interest in studies. In infancy, where children learn at a rapid pace, the learning speed in childhood is reduced but their learning area is wider than in infancy. From the point of view of psychologists, various methods should be used for the education of children at this stage.
Learning During Adolescence
• The age of 12 to 18 years is called adolescence. It is a period of time in which a person is oriented towards maturity from childhood. In this state, both the length and weight of the teenagers increase as well as the muscles.
• Between 12 to 14 years of age, girls grow faster in length and muscle than boys and Between 14 to 18 years of age, boys grow in length and muscles faster than girls.
• In this stage, the intelligence of the adolescents is fully developed. Their ability to concentrate increases, memory increases and they become stable.
• Adolescents body changes have an impact on social and psychological aspects of life Most teenagers face these changes without full knowledge and understanding which can make them a victim of dangerous situations. Therefore, at this stage they need the right guidance and advice from teachers, friends and parents.
Different dimensions of development and their relation to learning
Although there may be child development, it can be divided into several dimensions, but from the point of view of the study of child development and child psychology, the following dimensions are important: –
1. Physical development
2. Cognitive development
3. Language development
4. Social development
5. Emotional development
6. Conative (Functional) development
Physical development and learning
• Physical development involves the development of external and internal components of the child’s body.
• External body changes such as height, increase in body proportions, such body development can be seen clearly. But the changes of the internal components of the body are not visible externally, these develop properly within the body.
• The process of physical growth and development plays an important role in the proper adjustment and development of personality.
• Initially, the child is dependent on others for all his tasks, then gradually due to the process of development, he is able to fulfill his needs.
• The effect of genetic properties of the child can be seen on physical growth and development. Apart from this, the environment and care of the child also has an impact on his physical growth and development.
• Healthy physical development of all children is the first condition of all types of development. For this, it is necessary to pay attention to the basic requirements such as nutritious diet, physical exercise and other psychological-social needs.
• Teachers have sufficient knowledge about physical growth and development needed.
• It is also mandatory to keep adequate information to teachers about the growth and development of the child. Because children’s interests, desires, attitudes and in a way his complete behavior depends on physical growth and development.
Cognitive Development and Learning
• Cognitive or mental development refers to the growth and development of all the mental abilities and abilities of the child that result in properly adjusting to his constantly changing environment. And is able to use his mental powers adequately in solving various types of problems.
• The ability to imagine, remember, think, observe, problem solve, make decisions, etc., develops only as a result of cognitive development.
• At birth, the child lacks this kind of ability, gradually as the age increases, the pace of mental development also increases in him.
• Teachers should have enough knowledge about cognitive development, because in the absence of it, He will not be able to solve the problems related to children.
• Having sufficient knowledge about cognitive development helps in the selection and planning of course-related activities and experiences at different age levels.
• It can also help in preparing appropriate text books keeping in mind the mental growth and development of children at different stages and age levels.
Emotional development and learning
• Emotion means a condition that affects a person’s behavior. Fear, anger, hate, surprise, affection, etc. are examples of emotions As the child grows old, these emotions also develop.
• Emotional development is an important aspect of human growth and development. The emotional behavior of a person affects not only his physical growth and development but also intellectual, social and moral development.
• In the balanced development of the child, his emotional development plays an important role.
• There are many factors of emotional development, the teacher should be aware of these factors. Like – what is the reason for fear? Without knowing this, the fear of the child cannot be overcome.
• The family environment also greatly influences the emotional development of the child. Adequate support and affection of teachers to children is essential from the point of view for the development of their personality.
Conative (Functional) development and learning
• Conative development means development of one’s functional powers and abilities.
• Conative powers and abilities means such activities or actions that require a combination of activities of muscles and nerves to perform. Like sitting and walking etc.
• A newborn is unable to perform such a task. With physical growth and development, such abilities also begin to develop with age.
• Functional development helps in child’s physical development, staying healthy, self-reliant, and proper mental development.
• This also helps the child to gain confidence. Lack of extensive functional development hinders the development of various types of skills in the child.
• Knowledge of the nature and process of functional development is essential for teachers.
• Special work is required for the adjustment and development of children in which Conative development is less than normal.
Different aspects of development related to each other and learning
Different aspects of development are interrelated and all of them affect learning. Physical development is helpful in mental and cognitive development especially in young children. The participation of all children in independent play, informal and formal play, yoga and sports activities is essential for their physical and psychosocial development.
Mental and linguistic development directly affects social development and learning. Looking at the relation of learning to development, the curriculum should be developed in such a way that the child is compatible with the interrelationships of physical and mental development.
Make sense, developing the capacity for abstract thinking and action are the most important aspects of the learning process. As the age and experience of children increases, so does their learning in this way.
Children learn in a variety of ways on a personal level as well as from others – through experience, by doing and making things themselves, by experimenting, reading, discussing, asking, listening, thinking and contemplating and activity expressed here through writing. They should get all these types of opportunities in their path of development.
1. Question :- Which development is most helpful in mental and cognitive development in young children: –
Answer: Physical development
2. Question:- The process of meaningful learning starts from which stage of development: –
Answer: In infancy
3. Question:- Why all children have independent play, informal formal play, participation in yoga and sports activities is necessary: -
Answer: For physical, mental and social development.
4. Question:- If you want to select a few students from your class and prepare a report on the development occurring at the age of 6 months, then what will you do for this: –
Answer: Every month, they will examine changes in their interests, habits, attitudes, temperament, personality behavior, etc.
5. Question:- Under what circumstances is the tendency for close friendship found?
Answer: In adolescence
6. Question: – In which stage of human development, the speed of learning of children is highest.
Answer: In infancy
7. Question:- The most important feature in a good teacher at primary level is: –
Answer: Patience and perseverance.
8. Question:- Human development depends on-
Answer: On its growth and maturity from the environment.
9. Question:- When the adolescent develops the ability to take decisions at a personal level for an object, problem or situation, then this development is called: –
Answer: Cognitive Development
10. Question:- Strong feelings like ‘who am I’, ‘what am I’, ‘I am anything’, etc. are indicative of which stage of development of the child?
11. Question:- As a result of which the child is able to adjust properly in his constantly changing environment?
Answer: Cognitive Development
12. Question:- What is learning according to ‘Skinner’?
Answer: “Learning includes both acquisition and retention”.