What is Constitution of India
Constitution of India is called Bhartiya Savidhan also it is the supreme law of India. In its under limit boundaries of political procedure, structure, powers and functions and duties of government. In the constitution government set-ups all fundamental rights and duties, directive principles and duties of citizens.
Indian constitution is longest written constitution in the world. In 1928 the all Parties conference directed a committee in Lucknow to prepare the constitution of India, which was known as the ‘Nehru Report’. In this report, The independent India’s constitution have mentioned right to equality, right to independence, Universal Adult Voting Rights and right to protect minorities.
Constituent Assembly and making of constitution
Assembly of elected public representatives Works to write a huge document called the constitution, it comes from the Constituent Assembly. The constitution was drafted by the constituent assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. Elections to the Indian Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held in December 1946, after which the country was divided into two parts, India and Pakistan. Therefore, the Constituent Assembly was also divided into two parts, the Constituent Assembly of India and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. Initially, the total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 324. On 31 October 1947, the Constituent Assembly was reorganized and on 31 December 1947, its number of members decreased to 299.
22 Januari 1947 After the acceptance of the objective proposal, the Constituent Assembly appointed a number of committees for the formulation of the constitution. Chief among these were Negotiations Committee,
Union Constitution Committee, Provincial Constitution Committee, Union Power Committee and Drafting Committee. The chairman of the drafting committee was Dr. BR Ambedkar.
The drafting committee presented its report to the Constituent Assembly on 21 February 1948 after discussing the draft of the constitution.
The Constitution of India became ready by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949.
Dr. BR Ambedkar was a Wiseman and he was constitutional expert. He had studied constitutions of 60 countries. Dr.BR Ambedkar is known as ‘Father of the Indian constitution’.
The construction process of the Indian constitution took a total of 2 years 11 months and 18 days and about 6.4 crores was spent on this work.
When the constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949,At its enactment it had a complete 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules and 1,45,000 words. It is the second largest active constitution after the constitution of Alabama in the world.
The constitution has a preamble, 470 articles which are grouped into 25 parts and 12 schedules and 5 appendices. It has been amended 104 Times. The Latest amendment became on 25 January 2020.
Indian constitution came into force on 26 January 1950, Republic Day is celebrated every year on 26 January in memory of this day.
Basic Values of Indian Constitution
1. The values which inspired and gave directions to the Indian freedom struggle and those which were tested in this order, it was included in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, which became the basis of Indian democracy.
2. The basic values of the Indian Constitution begin with a small mandate. It is called the Preamble to the Constitution, in which the soul of the Indian Constitution dwells.
Preamble of the Indian constitution
3. ‘We the people of India’ mentioned in the preamble mean that the Constitution of India and the Act have been made by the people of India through their representatives and not by any king or outsider.
4. ‘Sovereign’ implies that people have the highest right to take decisions in every matter related to them. No external power can give orders to the Government of India.
5. ‘Socialist’ means that wealth arises in the society collectively and it should be divided in the society with equality. how should the government make laws related to the entitlement of land and industry businesses, that reduces social,economic inequalities.
6. ‘Secular’ means that citizens have complete freedom to believe in any religion but no religion is official. The government gives equal respect to all religious beliefs and stages.
7. ‘Democratic’ means a form of government in which People enjoy equal political rights, people elect their rule and make them answer, this government conforms to some basic rules.
8. ‘Republic’ means that the head of the government will be a person chosen by the people and not a dynasty of the royal family.
9. ‘Justice’ means that citizens cannot be discriminated against on the basis of their caste, religion and gender.
10. ‘Freedom’ means there is no unreasonable restriction on how citizens should think and express their thoughts and how to mind their thoughts.
11. ‘Equality’ means that all people are equal before the law. Pre-existing social inequalities will have to be eradicated. Government will make arrangements to provide small opportunities to every citizen.
12. ‘Fraternity’ means that we all behave as if we are members of one family. No citizen should consider another citizen less than himself.