Water resources- sources, uses, importance and conservation


Water resources

'Water is life' it is universal truth because without water life is not possible. Water is natural resource. Water has used in household works, industries, agriculture, recreations and environmental activities. Water is essential need for all living things to reproduce and to grow. There are several sources of water on the earth eg. Underground water, rainwater, rivers, lakes, ponds, Wells, glaciers and seas. On the earth 71% of water surface and 29% of land surface on the earth. Fresh water is renewable source and 97% water on the earth is salt water and only 3% water is fresh water to drinking and other uses. Main source of fresh water  is  underground water and rain water because it is pure water to drinking and beneficial for human health.

Sources of water:

1) Underground water

Underground water is the main source of freshwater which is uses for drinking and daily needs basis. It is located in the subsurface, pore surface of soil and rocks. Ground water can be found  in  some terms as surface water inputs, outputs and storage. In coastal areas human use of groundwater surface may cause the direction of seepage to Ocean to reverse which can also cause soil salinization. Human can also cause groundwater to be lost through pollution.


2) Surface water

Rivers, ponds, seas and lakes becomes in this category. Surface water naturally replenished by precipitation and evaporation and groundwater recharge. Natural surface water can be increased by importing surface water from another water sources through a canal or pipeline. In some hilly regions and mountains release underground water which combine with the rivers naturally. Several famous waterfalls becomes from mountains and hills which fulfills the rivers  lakes and ponds with water.

3) Frozen water or water as ice form

Several rivers replenished with iceberg as a water surface. Glacier runoff is considered to be surface water. The Himalayas play role as "The roof of the world" which contain the most extensive and rough high altitude areas on earth as well as the greatest area of glaciers and permafrost outside of the poles. Asia's largest 10 rivers flow from there and more than a billion peoples livelihood depends on it.

4) Desalination

It is an artificial process which make saline water to fresh and pure water. The desalination processes are distillation and reverse osmosis. But it is most expensive process. it is usually only uses such as household and industrial uses. 

5) Sources of drinking water

Main sources of drinking water is underground water and wells. But in some regions like deserts and backward areas doesn't found underground water. South India is heavy rain area there are people collects  rain water and use for households and drinking purpose. They stores rainwater and then use. 

Uses of water

1) Domestic use

People uses water to do their household works. The using of water in drinking, bathing, washing is essential need. Globally the domestic use of water estimated that 8% of worldwide water. These include drinking water, bathing, cooking, cleaning, toilet flushing, laundry and gardening. The underground water supply system reaches to the people. In some areas hand pumps and Wells in using.  In big cities river water supplies for household.  First river water purifiers and then its becomes to uses.

2) Industrial and commercial use

In commercial and industrial sectors most water is used for processing products with cooling coming in seconds. World wide use of water is estimated 22% in industries. Large amount of water used in industries for chemical process,  oil refineries and for cooling process. some industries consume water from hydroelectric dams and thermoelectric power plants. Pollution occurs when industries discharge waste water. 

3) Agricultural use

Large scale of water uses in agriculture for irrigation. It is most important that production of food for every country. River valleys and plains provide fertile soils. Farmers in dry regions irrigate their cropland using water carried by irrigation ditches from nearby rivers. In agricultural process 70% of water using globally. Furrow irrigation method and overhead sprinkler irrigation methods mostly using in agriculture which are less expensive.
It takes around 2000 to 3000 litres of water to produce enough food to satisfy one person's daily dietary needs. Global populations grow and it is demand for food increases in a world with the fixed water supply. There should be need to do efforts the way to learn how to produce more food with less water through improvements in irrigation methods and technologies, agricultural water management and crop types. 

Navigation and recreational use

Rivers provide travel routes for exploration, commerce and recreation. Through water way navigation made easy. Water transport are very precious and beneficial. Water also uses in recreational activities like boating, swimming, water skiers and water parks. Recreational uses may reduce the availability of water for other users at specific times and places. But these activities dangerous for water Heritage. Recreational activities make water dirty and release waste water in reservoirs. Recreational uses is usually non- consumptive. These are often targeted as using excessive amount of water is specially in dryer regions. This is largely due to the unavailability of reliable sources. 

Hydropower use

Hydroelectric facilities used the power of flowing water to turn turbines that produce electricity.  New technologies promise to increase the efficiency of power generation. 

Importance of water resources

  • Sources like rivers, Wells and lakes carry water and nutrients to areas all around the earth. Rivers play very important role in the water cycle rivers drain nearly 75% of the earth's land surface.
  • Water resources provide habitat and food for many of the earth's organism, several plants and trees grow by rivers. Many animals and birds take food from rivers. The deltas of rivers have many different species of wildlife.
  • Rivers are an important energy source. Several industries, Mills and factories are built near fast flowing rivers where water can be used to power machines.
  • Water resources most important way to usage as navigation, recreations industries and agricultural work. Water  sources provide us hydroelectricity by dams.

Conservation of water resources

Clean and fresh water is limited resource. Conserving water means using our waters supply wisely and be responsible. Every individual depends on water for livelihood we should keep our limited supply of water pure and away from pollution. If we keep our water supply safe and pure  it will protect the water for the generations to come.
 Almost 71% of the Earth is made up of water many parts of the world suffer from clean water shortage. Conserving water is important because it keeps water pure and clean while protecting the environment. Conservation of water involves refraining from water pollution. This requires the use of strategies that include reducing wastage, prevent damaging water quality and improve water management.
In household like bathroom, kitchen, garden and outdoor we should less used and save water in better way. Educate your kids about smart use of water. Try involving your local schools and communities water conservation efforts.




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