Resources and development- introduction and types




Resources and Development



Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs provided. It is technological accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as 'resource'.

The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interactive relationship between Nature technology and institutions. Human being interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. 

Types of resources

Resources functions of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential component of resources. They transform material available in our environment into the sources and use them. These resources can be classified in the following ways:-
(a) on the basis of origin: biotic and abiotic
(b) on the basis of exhaustibility: renewable and nonrenewable
(c) on the basis of ownership: individual, community, National and international
(d) on the basis of status of development: potential, developed, stock and reserves.


(a) On the basis of origin

1. Biotic resources

These are obtained from biosphere and have life. For example: human beings flora and fauna fisheries etc.

2. Abiotic resources

All those things which are composed of non living things are called abiotic resources. For example: rocks and metals. 

(b) on the basis of exhaustibility

1. Renewable resources

The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical and mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example: solar and wind energy, water, forest and wildlife etc.

2. Non renewable resources

These occur over a very long geological time for example minerals and fossil fuels. These resources take millions of years in their formation some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

(c) on the basis of ownership

1. Individual resources

These are also owned  privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless.Urban people own plots, houses and other property plantation pasture lands , water in Wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals.

2. Community owned resources

There are resources which are accessible to all the members of community, village commons- ground, ponds, public park, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are the factor accessible to all the people living there.

3. National resources

Old resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good. You might have seen roads, canals, Railways being constructed on fields owned by some individuals.
Urban development authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (22.2km) from the  cost t termed as territorial water and resources there in belong to the nation.

4. International resources

There are international institutions which regulate some resources.The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the exclusive economic zone belong to open and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.

d) on the basis of status of development

1. Potential resources

Resources which are found in a region but have not utilised for example the western part of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy but so far this have not be developed properly.

2. Developed resources

Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.

3. Stock

Materials in the Environment  which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access. These are included among stock for example water is a compound of two gases hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy but we do not have advanced technology know how to use it for this purpose and it can be considered as stock.

4. Reserve

Reserves are the subsets of the stock which can be put into use with the help of existing technical 'know how' but their use has not been started. This can be used for meeting future requirement.
River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently it is being utilised only to a limited extent.Thus the water in the dams, forest etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.


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